- Galtung, J. 1990. Cultural violence. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3): 291-305.
- Grint, K. 2008. Wicked problems and clumsy solutions: the role of leadership. Clinical Leader 1(2), 11-26.
- Kretzmann, J. P., & McKnight, J. L. 1996. A twenty-first century map for healthy communities and families.Evanston, IL: Asset-Based Community Development Institute, North-western University.
- Yosso T. 2005. Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education (8) 1: 69-91.
As part of the ICON’s role in community engagement, it works through the Durban Leadership Programme on a Peace Forest initiative in Lindelani, Ntuzuma, an area of the city that has a history of extreme violence.
As part of this work the Director was due to speak at a peace service at a church on 8th September. After a long delay, the service started with about 80 people, including women and a few older men, young men, teenagers and younger children. Some had come from rural areas and another province.
As the Director said, ‘Although the invitation had been to give a motivational speech on peace, I said I had little to say except that peace rested on two key elements: people’s thinking and their values and I wanted to connect with these. I asked those present to provide us with their questions around peace. I said that I would not answer the questions. Indeed there were no solutions for those present in London and New York – the solutions would need to be developed by the people present.’
After a brief hesitation, the questions started to come. They are presented here, with a statement as to which group the questioner was in:
Why is there a high rate of drugs?
How can we protect older citizens from abuse?
Why do we have a high rate of prostitutes?
Why do Christians quarrel amongst themselves?
Why are young girls at school falling pregnant?
Why are fathers deemed to be people who protect families, but they are in the forefront of carrying out abuse?
When people complain, why do they need to burn things?
How can we have development in our communities?
Why do people who get into authority treat people as if they are dirty clothes?
Very young children
Why are people jealous if a neighbour buys a new car?
It is allowed for teachers to hit children for wrong answers?
Why are taxi drivers not respected?
Why are people killing each other because of money?
What kinds of things must we do to bring peace in the world?
How can we help drug addicts?
Why do rich people not respect poor people?
Why do drunk people abuse women?
How can we help street kids?
Why do learners in school sell drugs?
Is it allowed by right or law for learners to harm teachers?
Why are young girls selling their bodies?
Why do old people want to sleep with young kids?
Clearly the older people present were very struck by the quality of young people’s thinking. Possibly, women were using the opportunity to put issues on the table that are not often brought into discussion. There was not time to speak further, but if there had been more time, we could have taken just one of those issues to explore further how communities could start to develop more effective responses.
This approach draws on different bodies of theory – the one is the work on ‘wicked problems’ (Grint 2008). The other is the theory around the forms of knowledge that exist in communities (for example, critical race theory; Kretzmann and McKnight 1996; Yosso 2005). The third is the need not to structure university-community relationships on the basis of either structural violence or cultural violence (Galtung 1990). For example, our community engagement needs to affirm and recognise the qualities of leadership amongst people in ‘the community’.
For ethical reasons, the images of the work are not posted here.
Dr Chrys Kiyala, research associate of ICON, is directly involved in peace-building work in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. His report follows, with an English summary before the main report in French.
In response to requests from members of the Lindelani community, ICON is assisting in developing a Peace Forest. Lindelani has a long history of intense violence, in particular during the years before the transition to democracy. At one stage, a stream surrounded by trees was the dividing line between warring communities. Members of the local community, led by Sibusiso Xaba, have proposed that the area now been made into a Peace Forest; a place that offers local people peace and that also symbolises and celebrates peace.
In 2018, this will be a project of the Durban Leadership Programme, which operates from the International Centre of Nonviolence in collaboration with staff of DUT and the African Centre for Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD). A group of students will work on the project, undertaking tasks like assisting in the removal of refuse from the stream, removing alien vegetation, developing signage and setting up a web presence for the project.
In addition, the project will also work at Pigeon Valley nature reserve, in Glenwood on the Durban Berea. This is a well-established and systematically managed municipal nature reserve. However, some of the issues, like the threat of crime, pollution and invasive plants, also affect this park. It could also be developed in innovative ways to foster ways of achieving greater peace.